Research topics summer term 2020
Effectuation and Cultural Entrepreneurship (14.05.2020)
Entrepreneurship and emotions are an exciting field of research that raises many questions and has been growing in popularity for a long time (Kuckertz, A. (2018) What's hot in entrepreneurship research). The role of passion for starting, holding out and finding solutions in difficult situations - alone or in a team - can already be found in the central economic authors (Schumpeter and Weber), as well as in established recent entrepreneurship approaches such as effectuation theory (Sarasvathy 2001, 2006).
With the study by Stefan Schulte-Holthaus (Macromedia University Munich) the participants of the Open Research Colloquium on May 14th. got into the discussion of the term “passion” and into the area of cultural entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurial Passion (EP) defined as “consciously accessible, intense positive feelings experienced by engagement in entrepreneurial activities associated with roles that are meaningful and salient to the self-identity of the entrepreneur” (Cardon 2009) in Schulte-Holthaus' research was assigned as success pattern to musicians. From expert interviews with eleven German artists, narrative data was obtained to build a causal map on their mental mind and emotions. The codes in the resulting “causal map” view then show in what kind the interviewed experts agree on passion related to performance, and by which relations “passion” (EP) can turn into self-efficacy. But it also shows how passion is experienced as a contradictory gift (failure, lifestyle). EP does have a strong influence on health as well as on success or non-success on markets; as need to „artistic expression" it pushes new entrepreneurs/creative businesses into the world. Schulte-Holthaus concludes from his data how important it is to recognize and accept passion (EP) at an early stage (1), not to underestimate its conflictual nature (2), and to use it to gain determination for one's own path (3).
Without current data, but with an already classic text by Sarasvathy (2006) "What to do next?" Dr. Christina Weber then presented the role of “passion” and commitment in an “effectuation circle” in comparison to the research topic of entrepreneurial propensity to risk taking (see RC Female Entrepreneurship). Passion and commitment defined as engagement and purpose do enable entrepreneurs (in the effectuation approach) to keep control of the risks of an uncertain future (affordable loss) in terms of dynamic network control. This happens gradually, stepwise by convincing others with passion to grow into new means and goals together by own and committed partners resources in a shared environment.
The research colloquium discussants raised questions about the difference between EP and passion in non-entrepreneurial contexts; about the living sources and data of passion; and about the interpretation, orientation and delimitation of EP in social interactions. It became very clear that research concepts of control and risk with different entrepreneurship theories (strategic management - effectuation) help to understand passion and risk to innovative companies in new ways.
Female Entrepreneurship und Diversity (21.4.2020)
With our 2nd research colloquium in 2020, we kicked off the new research topic of MUAS and SCE on Female Entrepreneurship& Diversity. In a virtual zoom meeting (due to the Covid-19 pandemic), a total of 3 speakers gave insights into their current research projects, followed by fruitful discussions of the 25 participants.
Nadine Chochoiek, is a doctoral candidate at the LMU Entrepreneurship Center. Nadine presented her research on the topic of “Risk Preferences of Female Entrepreneurs – Closing the Gender Data Gap in Entrepreneurship”. In the search for reasons why the proportion of female founders is significantly lower (in Germany currently: 15.1% - see: FemaleFounders Monitor, 2019), "risk aversion" is a recurring point. There is a 'gender data gap'. Their study highlights the gender data gap in several influential experimental studies on risk preferences in entrepreneurship, which they were aiming to address and decrease by explicitly measuring female entrepreneurs' risk propensity, both relative to male entrepreneurs and to female employees in their research. Their findings show that female entrepreneurs are substantially more risk tolerant than female employees – a finding that is also true for owners of early-stage businesses, suggesting that more risk tolerant women select into entrepreneurship. However, among entrepreneurs, the gender gap in risk propensity is much smaller and not statistically significant, and disappears entirely when we restrict our attention to entrepreneurs with incorporated businesses. Their results thus imply that entrepreneurship support policies that involve a reduction in the (perception of the) riskiness of entrepreneurial activities (e.g. access to social insurance; grants convertible to loans) might have a particularly strong positive impact on women's propensity to start up, while they will benefit owners of established businesses similarly irrespective of their gender.
Since February 2020, Franziska Mattner works as a researcher and doctoral candidate at the HM and SCE on the new research topic of ‘Female Entrepreneurship& Diversity’. Within the project it is planned to enhance both the visibility of female role models (e.g. Podcast) and to assist female students in developing entrepreneurial skills, such as self-efficacy, resilience and optimism, to become responsible, future leaders. The latter will be done by designing new digital learning experiences, e.g. an online entrepreneurial skill training.
Lastly, Svenja Lassen, Managing Director at primeCROWD and Prof. Dr. Alexandra Wuttig of IUBH university presented their results on ‘Female Business Angels in Germany’. Despite the fact that currently only 8% of all business angels in Europe are female, their study results show that there is a total of 63.4% of women that are interested in the topic of startup investment. 68% of those would be specially interested in ‘Impact Investment’, meaning that they would like to ‘do something good’ while investing their money. A total of 62% would be interested to mainly support female founders with their investments. In their question why they haven’t yet invested, the main reasons are: lack of knowledge and lack of access on how and where to find and invest in suitable startups. Thus, to drive this topic further Svenja and Alexandra suggest to provide information and practical help by offering suitable consultancy services as well as to raise general awareness and sensitivity of the topic in existing female networks. In view of their results, they propose that a raise in female investors would ultimately increase the percentage of female founders.
Quadruple Helix Innovation (26.3.2020)
The first Research Colloquium in 2020 took place with virtually with Dr. Christina Weber (SCE) and Dr. Prof. Dr. Anke van Kempen (Professorship Corporate Communication HM / Research Professorship “M:UniverCity”) as well as colloquium participants from civil society, Munich University of Applied Sciences and other universities. A current Fraunhofer study (Schütz, Heidingsfelder, Schraudner (2019), Co-shaping the Future in Quadruple Helix Innovation Systems: Uncovering Public Preferences toward Participatory Research and Innovation) was sent in advance setting the stage for the scientific discussion.
Quadruple Helix Innovation is an approach that ever since Carayannis (2016) first publication combines the Open Innovation Paradigm (Chesborough 2003), Triple Helix Approaches (sustainable development and business-industry-policy innovation clusters) and former models of public-private partnerships. At EU level, project funding in innovation schemes that prescribes or invites quadruple helix inclusion rises. Building a “cloverleaf” of actor groups as a model for the different societal sectors economy, science, politics and civil society is a complex task but it promises high diversity of knowledge, and the emergence of locally sustainable innovation processes - from the first conceptual phase – can be expected.
“M: UniverCity” is the name of the joint project of the Munich University of Applied Sciences and the SCE, which is implementing this integrative innovation approach since 2018. In four thematic living labs run with the city of Munich, companies and startups are invited as well as many different civil society actors, to form temporary co-creation groups that work on solutions for local problems.
In the literature, the civil society sector is the least researched part of the quadruple (and also the last one involved, internationally). The research colloquium put it center stage for two hours. In the discussion of the exciting text by Fraunhofer researchers, it was found out that the civil society typology proposed, for people typically participating in QH innovation processes, developed by the study, could not be confirmed by data from the project “M:UniverCity”. It became clear soon how much the context (e.g. the broadcast of a Fraunhofer Institute, the rooms of a hospital, etc.) of an innovation workshop influences expectations of civil society actors, and attracts and selects its own participants.
Individual innovation workshops with all creative materials are punctual experiments or interventions, so aim at special discrete forms of cooperation (such as one-time foresights) which are different from long term local development, orientation on sustainable co-creation and realized knowledge transfer. The conclusion was that there is a need for further research in order to better understand the influence of “context” and also of different 'time regimes' of formats, but also across the four sectors of Quadruple Helix innovation processes. Only then it could be achieved to control such processes more successfully.